The predecessor of the Federal Antimonopoly Service - the State Committee of the RSFSR for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to New Economic Structures was found in accordance with the Law of the Russian Soviet Socialist Federative Republic of July 14, 1990 «On Republican Ministries and State Committees of the RSFSR». Mr. Valery P. Chernogorodsky was appointed the Chairman of the Committee. The list of members of the staff constituted to 150 persons, the temporary Regulation «On State Committee of the RSFSR for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to New Economic Structures» that has been approved by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of September 10, 1990 №344 «Issues of the State Committee of the RSFSR for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to New Economic Structures» was implemented.

In accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of August 24, 1992 №915 «On State Committee of the Russian Federation for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to New Economic Structures» and in order to secure the development of market relations and competition in the Russian Federation as well as in pursuance of the Laws of the Russian Federation «On Competition and Limitation of Monopolistic Activity on Commodity Markets» and «On Consumers' Rights Protection» the new Regulation on State Committee of the Russian Federation for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to New Economic Structures was adopted. New goals and functions were added as well as the number of the members of the staff was increased up to 350 persons (without taking into account the security and technical personnel).

In November 1992 Mr. Leonid A. Bochin was appointed the Chairman of the Committee.

For the purpose of realization of the Address of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of 1997 in its part that concerns bringing the structure of the Government of the Russian Federation and the structure of the federal bodies of executive power to conformity with economic reforms' requirements, the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to New Economic Structures was transformed to the State Antimonopoly Committee of the Russian Federation (in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of March 17, 1997 №249 «On perfection of the structure of the federal bodies of executive power»).

In August 1997 Mrs. Nataliya E. Fonareva was appointed the Chairman of the Committee.

On September 22, 1998 according to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation №1142 «On the structure of federal bodies of executive power» the State Antimonopoly Committee of the Russian Federation (Chairman - N.E.Fonareva), the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Support and Development of Small Entrepreneurship (Chairman - I.M.Khakamada), the Federal Service of the Russian Federation for Regulation of Natural Monopolies in Transportation Sphere (Head - V.I.Budko) and the Federal Service of the Russian Federation for Regulation of Natural Monopolies in the Sphere of Communication (Head - V.M.Goryachev) were abolished. The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to Entrepreneurship (MAP Russia) was established in its place. MAP Russia inherited the functions of the abolished Authorities. Mr. Gennady M. Khodyrev was appointed the Minister.

The number of employees of the central office of the Ministry (440 persons without office security) was determined by the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of December 25, 1998 № 1564 «Issues of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to Entrepreneurship». The following Departments were formed in the structure of the central office: for legal issues, for the development of competition on financial markets and control over observance of legislation on exchanges, for development and support to entrepreneurship, for regulation of natural monopolies' activity in communication sphere, for regulation of natural monopolies' activity in the sphere of transportation. The Regulation on the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Antimonopoly Policy and Support to Entrepreneurship was ratified by the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation № 793 of July 12, 1999.

In May, 1999 Mr. Ilya A. Yuzhanov became the Minister.

On September 4, 2001 by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation № 1091 «On introducing changes in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 29, 1995 № 1194 «On Federal Energy Commission of the Russian Federation» paragraph 2 of the point 3 of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 22, 1998 № 1142 «On the structure of the federal bodies of executive power» lost its validity in the part that deals with the MAP Russia' provision with the functions of the abolished Federal Service of the Russian Federation for Regulation of Natural Monopolies in Transportation Sphere.

On March 9, 2004 the Ministry was abolished, its powers were delegated to other authorities. The functions of the federal antimonopoly body, control over the activity of natural monopolies and observance of the legislation on advertising were delegated to newly established Federal Antimonopoly Service. Mr. Igor Yu. Artemyev was appointed the Head of FAS Russia. The regulation on the Federal Antimonopoly Service was adopted by the Russian Government on July 29, 2004.